Agriculture | Muskmelon Cultivation: Muskmelon is an important commercial crop among the crops that come under the pumpkin category, which can be cultivated through polyhouse technology throughout the year, whereas it is done only once in open fields.
Although this crop is of summer, but its fruits are always in demand in the market. Therefore, if it is grown by polyhouse technology, then fruits will be available throughout the year. In polyhouse, melon can be grown twice.
For example, in mountainous regions, the first crop can be taken from February to May, the second crop can be taken in the month of June to November, but in the plains, the melon crop can be taken as the first crop from August to December, the second crop from December to January twice respectively. can.
Both these crops are considered off-season and early. Due to which the farmers get good market price. Melon fruits are eaten both raw and cooked. It is mostly used as a fruit.
Melon fruits are eaten religiously during fasting and to escape from summer. TS in melon s. The quantity is found up to 10-15, due to which the sweetness is found more. It is rich in nutrients. Salt is also made from its seeds.
Juice and scous are also made from the pulp of melon. Its fruits are used extensively in fruit, salad. It is rich in nutrients. Snacks are also made from its seeds, juice and scous are also made from its pulp. Its fruits are used extensively in fruit, salad.
Land preparation for Muskmelon
Make 20-25 cm high beds on both sides leaving a path of 2-3 feet in the direction of the doors made in the polyhouse and level it well. After that, by storing cow dung or compost manure or vermicompost manure at the rate of 5-6 kg per square meter, mix 2 teaspoons of Bavistin or Trichoderma per liter of water by spraying or sprinkling and mixing it well in the compost again 20-30 Cover with micron polythene for 2-3 weeks.
When the compost is ready, mix it in the beds made inside the polyhouse and then solarize those beds. In this way, the defects in the soil of the field are removed in the polyhouse and good production of melon fruits continues.
Climate and Microenvironment for Muskmelon Cultivation
For the cultivation of melon, 16-18 degree centigrade at night and 25-30 degree centigrade temperature inside the polyhouse and 60-80% soil moisture and humidity in the environment are required for the cultivation of melon.
If the temperature is found to be less than 10 degree centigrade and the humidity is less than 30 percent, then the process of fruit formation in the crop is affected and small irregular shapes are formed, which reduces both production and quality. But if this environment is maintained in outside cultivation then it is not possible.
But if we adopt polyhouse farming, then all the factors like temperature, humidity, light, carbon dioxide etc. are obtained according to the demand of the crops, due to which the production and quality are more and the crops keep giving fruits for a longer period than outside.
Planting and Distance Management of Muskmelon
Melon nursery is ready in 20-25 days in polyhouse. Grow in nursery polythene bags of size 10X3 cm or grow in soilless medium (soilless media) through Pro Tray medium.
Muskmelon Variety Selection
Selection of species plays an important role for melon cultivation in polyhouse, otherwise if the right species is not planted then there is a possibility of damage. Melon is a cross-pollinated crop that is pollinated by insects, bees, butterflies and bumblebees.
Therefore, we should choose such a species which is of gynocious nature and self-fertilizing without seed. By the way, this type of gynoecious species is less developed so far. But selection of some good species has been found beneficial for polyhouse farming which can be earned by adopting it.
Cantaloupe Species – New species developed by Pusa Institute Delhi like: Pusa Sharad (Yellow Melon), Pusa Madhurima, Pusa Maghurus, Preeti, Muskan, Trisha, Madhumati, Sun-2, Bobi, Sharda Melon Inthanon-RZ, Catalo, Persianmelon, Centaclaus Melon etc. Polyhouse The species has been selected for the structure and this species is used in off-season in polyhouses andGives good results in nethouse structure.seed price
The seed price of Muskmelon species is available from the market and agricultural institutions at the rate of Rs. 1-2 per seed on an average.
Seed Rate of Muskmelon
1800-1850 seeds per 200 sqm (10 g/200 sqm) or 8-10 seeds per sqm are required. If we talk about 1000 sqm polyhouse, keeping in mind the germination capacity, about 40-50 grams of seed will be required or say that about 4300-4500 seeds will be required.
Harvesting and Support Management of Muskmelon
Melon cultivation can be done in polyhouse by both the methods. One can grow plants by planting single row by polythene mulching method i.e. below ground. As it happens outside in open fields. In this, the cutting of branches is not pruned.
The second method is that you can do it in the same way as in the earlier lessons in cucumber, bitter gourd with staking method. If the melon cultivation in polyhouse and nethouse is done with prop and harvesting method, then good quality fruit yield can be obtained. Which fetches good market price.
Irrigation Management of Muskmelon
Irrigate the melon crop installed in the polyhouse according to whatever facility of water is available around the polyhouse structure. But if drip irrigation system is installed, then both soluble fertilizer and water can be given simultaneously, so it is necessary to apply drip irrigation technology in polyhouse structure and nethouse structure.
Because due to fusarium in the roots and stems of melon crop due to flow irrigation, the crop gets spoiled. Keep in mind that in the beginning, give less amount of water to the plants, later gradually increase according to their age and requirement. Irrigation water should not be saline and acidic otherwise the crop will not be good. Therefore, after checking the quality of irrigation water, PH 7, EC. 1 and TD s. Should be between 1000-1200.
Fertilizer Management of Muskmelon
Before 10 days of planting, mix cow dung, earthworm manure, leaf manure etc. in the field at the rate of 8 -10 kg per square meter. Again mixing 100 grams of urea, 200 grams of single super phosphate, 50 grams of potash, 100 grams of neemkhali and 1-2 teaspoons of a fungicide called Trichoderma or Bavastine, cover the soil with 20-30 micron transparent polythene for 2-3 weeks. Get it purified.
Then plant or plant seeds. If all the fertilizers are not available separately, then 20 grams of DAP. Mix it in the soil at the rate of per square meter and spray 15-15 grams of urea at the rate of 3-4 times per square meter in the entire crop. Always spray urea in the presence of moisture in the ground.
If drip irrigation is available, then urea can be given by mixing it in the tank. 100-150 ppm for giving fertilizers through drip irrigation. At the rate of 1-2 times a week,
and in addition, 50-100 ppm of micronutrients is given 1-2 times a month. It is also given through drip irrigation at the rate of Rs. 1
Harvesting and Yield When the fruits of melon mature and ripen, that is, the color of the outer shell changes, along with the size and weight of the fruit becomes 1-1.5 kg according to the nature of the species. should be broken.
Cut the fruits with a sharp knife or scissors, otherwise there is a fear of breaking the stem by pulling and plucking. Divide the fruits into two grades according to weight and size. Keep fruits of same weight and size in ‘A’ grade and others in ‘B’ grade, which will fetch good money in the market.
Generally, Sharda Melon can be kept for 1 month in a normal ventilated room. Whereas other species can be sold by keeping them in normal rooms for 5-7 days.
Major diseases and Pests of Muskmelon
Powdery mildew powdery mildew
The first symptoms of this disease appear as white or faint gray spots on the surface of leaves and stems. After a few days these spots become powdery.
The white powdery substance eventually covers the entire plant surface. Due to severe attack, the leaves fall from the plant. Due to this the size of the fruit remains small.
Prevention: For its prevention, diseased plants should be collected and burnt in the field. Disease resistant variety should be selected for sowing. Calixin 1 ml Make a solution of the medicine in one liter of water at an interval of seven days or topaz 1 ml. medicine 4 lit. Dissolve it in water and do 1-2 sprays at an interval of 10 days.
Muskmelon Soft Gourd Asita
This disease occurs after the rainy season when the temperature is above 25 degrees Celsius. above, then spreads rapidly. The outbreak of this disease is more in northern India. This disease causes angular spots on the leaves. These are yellow in color on the upper surface of the leaves. When there is high humidity, the growth of soft fungus is seen on the lower surface of the leaves.
Prevention: For its prevention, treat the seed with a fungicide named Metalaxyl at the rate of 3 grams per kg of seed. In standing crop, spray [email protected]/Litre of water. Completely diseased vines should be removed and burnt. For disease free seed production, take seeds only from healthy fruits.
Cucumber Mosaic Virus
The spread of this disease is done by the use of succulent seeds and by aphid insect. Due to this, the development of small, pale yellow spots in the new leaves of melon plants, usually starts from the veins, the leaves start shrinking. Plants remain deformed and small. Mild, yellow-spotted symptoms also appear on the fruits.
Prevention: For its prevention, use virus free seeds and destroy the diseased plants by removing them from the field. Dimethoate 1 ml for the control of virus carrier pests. Took. Make a solution per liter of water and do two sprays at an interval of 10 days.
Watermelon Wad Necrosis Virus
The disease is spread by the thrips insect. Small spots are formed on the upper part of the diseased plants, leaves and stalks, which start drying from above. Apart from this, black spots are formed on the leaves and ringed spots are formed on the fruits.
Prevention: To prevent this disease, sow disease resistant varieties and uproot the diseased plants and bury them in the ground. Because this disease is spread by thrips which sit on the lower surface of the leaves. When these worms are light yellow in color in infancy, then 3 ml of intravenous drug called Confidor is given. Spray 10 liters of water in quantity.
Major pests in Watermelon/Muskmelon
• Red Pest of Pumpkin:
These insects are very active from January-March till October. Soon after the plant freezes, more damage is done by these insects. Due to which the plant dries up. The adult insect causes more damage to the leaves.
New pests damage the roots of plants, causing older and larger plants to turn yellow and stop their growth. This worm is active throughout the year except the period of November-February.
Prevention: Adults are not very active in the morning. Therefore, the adult should be caught by the hand and killed. Even after spraying ash at the time of dew in the morning, it does not sit on the adult plant, which reduces the damage.
If even this is not controlled, then 25 kg powder of Malathion powder (5 percent) or Carbaryl (5 percent) per hectare. At the rate of ash mixed with ash should be sprinkled on the plants in the morning or Malathion (50 EC)Make a solution of 2.5 ml per liter or Carbaryl (50 percent soluble powder) at 2 grams per liter of water and spray it at an interval of 15 days.
• Fruit Soil:
The larva of this insect damages the fruits. Before flowering, laying eggs on the stem adjacent to the ground starts rotting and the plant dries up. The part of the fruit on which this insect lays its eggs by piercing it, it starts getting spoiled.
Prevention: To control the egg-laying fly, light traps or ferro-mon traps should be installed in the field.
- Keep doing it on time. Keep the door closed.
- Keep spraying insecticide and anti-fungal drugs from time to time.
- Do not consume tobacco and its products inside.
- Do the process of harvesting, sorting and supporting from time to time.
- The outside curtains in the polyhouse and the curtains of the skylights must be lifted during the day and if there is a polyhouse with a fan, then the fan must be run during the day.
- Wash the roofs of the polyhouse 1-2 times with clean water in the month of November-December. So that the crops get plenty of sunlight.
- Wherever the polyhouse is torn from anywhere, keep repairing it from time to time.